- The kingdom of the East Franks (q.v.), which became the nucleus of Germany after the division of Charlemagne's (q.v.) realm in 843. In 911 when the last of the Carolingian kings of Germany died, Conrad I was elected king, followed in 918 by Henry I of Saxony. In 962 his son Otto I the Great (q.v.) was crowned emperor of what was called the Roman Empire (much later referred to as the Holy Roman Empire). Byzantium (q.v.) eventually recognized Otto I as basileus (q.v.) of the Franks, but not of the Romans. Relations between the two empires were frequently tense, especially over conflicting territorial claims in Italy (q.v.). The passage of Frederick I Barbarossa (q.v.) through Byzantium during the Third Crusade (q.v.) was fraught with tension. Frederick I's son Philip of Swabia (q.v.) played a minor though important role in the diversion of the Fourth Crusade to Constantinople (qq.v.).
Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . John H. Rosser .
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